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Time periods: 1859-1886
The middle of the nineteenth century saw a Liberal ascendancy, with Liberal governments under Palmerston and Gladstone in power almost continuously. Gladstone in particular dominated politics in this period; free trade became an article of faith, and Liberal governments pursued peace, retrenchment and reform. The franchise was extended again, and discrimination against nonconformists the backbone of Liberal support steadily removed.

History (22)
Biographies (14)
Journals (1)
Journal articles (39)
Events (8)
Archives: libraries (4)
Archives: individuals (1)
PhD theses (57)
Research (3)

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History
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A concise history of the Liberal Party, SDP and Liberal Democrats

The Liberal Democrats are the successors to two important reformist traditions in British politics - those of liberalism and of social democracy, which became separated from each other in the early p...

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A Torrent of Gin and Beer: The Election Defeat in 1874

In January 1874, the Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone, approached the queen to dissolve parliament, surprising both the opposition and his own party. In his election manifesto, Gladstone promi...

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Chamberlain on the Radical Programme

First speech on the Unauthorised Programme by Joseph Chamberlain
...

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Chamberlains Radical Programme

Joseph Chamberlain, the Birmingham manufacturer, took up full time politics in the 1870s. As mayor of Birmingham he built his reputation by successfully importing business methods into local governme...

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Extract from Gladstone's 3rd Midlothian speech on foreign policy

Following his electoral defeat in 1874, Gladstone resigned the Liberal leadership and, in his sixties, hoped to spend the rest of his life in retirement. The Balkan Massacres of 1876 drew him back to...

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Gladstonian Liberalism

Few statesmen left a deeper and more permanent mark on British Liberalism than William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898). What secured a unique place for him in the history of Liberalism was not simply the...

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Hawarden Kite

In November 1885 the Irish Nationalist leader, Charles Stewart Parnell proposed an independent constitution for Ireland and although the Liberal leader, William Gladstone, believed in the necessity o...

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John Stuart Mill On Liberty

Chapter IV Of the Limits to the Authority of Society over the Individual ...

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Joseph Chamberlain and Municipal Liberalism

The reforms in municipal services that Joseph Chamberlain introduced during his three-year mayoralty of Birmingham in the mid-1870s marked a turning point for British Liberalism as well as in the gov...

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Lib-Labs

The first working class representatives within Parliament were known as "Lib-Lab" MPs. They accepted the Liberal whip while exercising the right to utilise their experience to speak freely ...

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Nonconformists

The Nonconformists were members of several Protestant groups outside the Church of England. They included in their ranks the Old Dissenters, denominations that went back to the seventeenth century. T...

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Personal account of the meeting in Willis Rooms

The following letter from Sidney Herbert to his wife is a personal account of the meeting that took place at Willis' Rooms in St James Street, London on the 6th June 1859, when the Liberal Party...

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The Age of Russell and Palmerston , 1846-1868

The collapse of Sir Robert Peel's Conservative government, following the 1846 repeal of the Corn Laws, began a complex re-arrangement of British political parties; one that took more than a deca...

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The Home Rule crisis

Shortly after Gladstones second government had seen the third reform act safely onto the statute book in 1885, it suffered a defeat on the budget and resigned. Lord Salisbury formed a minority Conser...

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The Liberals and Ireland since 1801

Underneath the surface of this [Irish question], and wrapped up in it, are nearly all the controversies of principle which will agitate the political atmosphere of our time. It is a microcosm of the ...

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The Liberals in Opposition 1875-1880

At the beginning of 1875, following his defeat by Disraeli in the 1874 general election, Gladstone resigned the leadership of the Liberal party, convincing himself that at the age of 65 he deeply des...

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The Midlothian Campaign

A year after the defeat of his government in 1874, William Ewart Gladstone retired as leader of the Liberal Party. At 65, he deeply desired an interval between parliament and the grave to devote to r...

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The Newcastle Programme

The general election of 1885 was the first fought on the enlarged franchise of the third reform act and the first in which the parties competed for the votes of large numbers of agricultural workers....

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Times report on the meeting in Willis Rooms

The following report from The Times describes the meeting that took place at Willis' Rooms in St James Street, London on the 6th June 1859, when the Liberal Party was finally formed. ...

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John Stuart Mill on votes for women

'We ought not to deny to them, what we are conceding to everybody else' - House of Commons, 20 May 1867 ...

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Remember The Rights of The Savage

Following his electoral defeat in 1874, Gladstone resigned the Liberal leadership and, in his sixties, hoped to spend the rest of his life in retirement. The Balkan Massacres of 1876 drew him back to...

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Great Liberals

John Stuart Mill chosen as greatest British Liberal ...

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Biographies
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Biography of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman


Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry

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Biography of William Ewart Gladstone


Gladstone, William Ewart

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Biography of Sir William Harcourt


Harcourt, Sir William

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Biography of Marquess of MP; 8th Duke of Devonshire Hartington


Hartington, Marquess of (Duke of Devonshire)

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Biography of 3rd Viscount Palmerston


Palmerston, Viscount (Henry John Temple)

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Biography of Lord 1st Earl Russell John Russell


Russell, Lord John

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Biography of John Bright


Bright, John

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Biography of Thomas, Hill Green


Green, Thomas Hill

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Biography of John Stuart Mill


Mill, John Stuart

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Biography of Charles Bradlaugh


Bradlaugh, Charles

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Biography of Joseph Chamberlain


Chamberlain, Joseph

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Biography of William Edward Forster


Forster, William Edward

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Biography of William Ewart Gladstone


Gladstone, William Ewart

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Biography of Earl Granville


Granville, Earl (Granville George Leveson Gower)

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Journal
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Journal of Liberal Democrat History 20 - Special issue: William Ewart Gladstone 1809-98

20-Autumn_1998.jpg

Autumn, 1998

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Journal articles
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Gladstone and the Conservative collapse

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 53 ')


Analysis of the article on The Conservative Collapse in the Fortnightly Review of 1 May 1880, published anonymously but written by Gladstone

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William Ewart Gladstone: A bicentenary perspective

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 75 ')


Gladstone's connections with Nottinghamshire explored.

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Gladstonian Liberalism according to Gladstone

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 52 ')


What were the prevailing principles of the Liberal Party in the late Victorian period?

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Dishing the Whigs in Winchester

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 53 ')


The impact of electoral reform in the nineteenth century on elections in Winchester.

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William Digby and the Indian Question

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 58 ')


The first secretary of the National Liberal Club was also a radical political organiser and agitator for India. Examination of his activities.

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John Stuart Mill: Liberal father of feminism

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 62 - Special issue: Women and Liberalism ')


Exploration of how Liberalism and feminism meet powerfully in the life and work of John Stuart Mill.

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David and Maggie

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 63 ')


Diaries and correspondence files are used to examine the courtship between David Lloyd George and Margaret Owen between 1884 and their marriage in 1888.

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Out of Chartism, into Liberalism?

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 67 - Special issue: Liberals and the left ')


Popular radicals and the Liberal Party in mid-Victorian Britain.

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John Stuart Mill and the Liberal Party

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 70 ')


Analysis of the impact of the Victorian Liberal philosopher on his party.

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Coalition before 1886

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 72 - Special issue: The Liberal experience of coalition government ')


Whigs, Peelites and Liberals: an examination of coalitions before 1886.

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The making of 'The People's William'

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 75 ')


Analysis of Gladstone's transformation into the most popular politician of his age.

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Gladstone, Marx and modern progressives

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 8 ')


Examination of the relationship between Karl Marx and William Ewart Gladstone, between revolutionary Marxism and reformist Gladstonian Liberalism.

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Origins of the party

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 4 ')


Review of John Vincent, The Formation of the British Liberal Party 1857-68

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The high summer of Victorian Liberalism

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 5 ')


Review of Ian Bradley, The Optimists

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The Liberal Party and womens suffrage, 1866-1918

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 62 - Special issue: Women and Liberalism ')


Analysis of the relationship between the Liberal Party and the campaigns for womens suffrage.

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Celebrating 1859: Party, Patriotism and Liberal Values

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 65 ')


On 6 June 1859, 280 Whig, Liberal, former Peelite and radical MPs met at Willis's Rooms in King Street, St. James's. They gathered to agree on a strategy to oust Lord Derby's Conservative government from office. Angus Hawkins analyses the significance of this key event in Liberal history.

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John Stuart Mill as politician

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 70 ')


Mill's brief career as a Member of Parliament.

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Sir Edward Watkin and the Liberal cause in the nineteenth century

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 55 ')


The life of Liberal MP Edward Watkin, the last of the railway kings.

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An archivist's nightmare: the papers of John Stuart Mill

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 70 ')


The Mill-Taylor Collection at the LSE.

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Victorian Liberals

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 3 ')


Review of Jonathan Parry, The Rise and Fall of Liberal Government in Victorian Britain

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Liberalism and national identity

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 80 ')


An examination of the role played by Liberalism in the Victorian construction of a national identity.

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A 'sincere, thorough and hearty Liberal'?

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 52 ')


Biography of Jabez Balfour, 1843-1916

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Dizzy and the Grand Old Man

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 58 ')


Review of Richard Aldous, The Lion and the Unicorn: Gladstone vs Disraeli

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Report: The strange birth of Liberal England

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 64 ')


Report on a joint meeting of the History Group and the National Liberal Club on 20 July 2009, with Professor Anthony Howe, David Steel (Lord Steel of Aikwood) and Ros Scott (Baroness Scott of Needham Market).

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George Jacob Holyoake

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 67 - Special issue: Liberals and the left ')


Examination of how the life of Holyoake exemplified the development of popular Liberalism.

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The 'member for Scotland'

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 69 ')


Duncan McLaren (1800-86) and the Liberal dominance of Victorian Scotland; by Willis Pickard.

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John Bright: great political campaigner or something more?

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 70 ')


Biography of the radical Liberal campaigner John Bright.

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Lord Acton

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal Democrat History 28 ')


Review of Roland Hill: Lord Acton

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Greatest of the Liberal philosophers

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 60 ')


Review of Richard Reeves, John Stuart Mill, Victorian Firebrand.

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The relevance of Henry Richard

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 79 ')


The legacy of Liberal MP Henry Richard (1812-88), the 'apostle of peace'.

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Comprehensive Liberal history

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 73 ')


Review of Robert Ingham and Duncan Brack (eds.), Peace, Reform and Liberation: A History of Liberal Politics in Britain 16792011.

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Promoting progress everywhere

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 59 ')


Review of Jonathan Parry, The Politics of Patriotism: English Liberalism, National Identity and Europe 1830-1886.

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Scottish Liberal

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 78 ')


Review of Willis Pickard, The Member for Scotland: A Life of Duncan McLaren (John Donald, 2011)

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British Liberalism and Irish Nationalism

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 59 ')


Review of Eugenio Biagini, British Democracy and Irish Nationalism, 1876-1906.

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Gladstone 200

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 63 ')


The Gladstone 200 Campaign at St Deiniol's Library.

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Gladstone and Ireland

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 78 ')


Review of Mary E. Daly and Theordore Hoppen (eds.), Gladstone: Ireland and
Beyond
(Four Courts Press, 2011).

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Morley and the Liberal Party

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 81 ')


Review of Patrick Jackson, Morley of Blackburn (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2012)

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Secular intellectuals

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 73 ')


Review of William C. Lubenow, Liberal Intellectuals and Public Culture in Modern Britain, 1815-1914: Making Words Flesh.

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Liberals in Ulster

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 79 ')


Review of Gerald R. Hall, Ulster Liberalism 1778-1876 (Four Courts Press, 2011).

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Events
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The Liberal Party, Unionism and political culture in late 19th and early 20th century Britain

Saturday 10 November 2012

A one-day seminar organised by Newman University College and the Journal of Liberal History.
...

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Peace, Reform and Liberation: launch of new Liberal history book

Monday 19 September 2011

Peace, Reform and Liberation is a comprehensive history of Liberal politics in Britain.
...

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Riding the tiger - the Liberal experience of coalition governments

Saturday 26 March 2011

A one day seminar organised by the Archives Division of the London School of Economics, the British Liberal Political Studies Group and the Journal of Liberal History.
...

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A celebration and exploration of aspects of the life, career and thought of John Stuart Mill

Saturday 14 November 2009

In 1859, the philosopher and leading liberal theorist of Victorian Britain, John Stuart Mill, published his most important and enduring work On Liberty. In this essay Mill set out the principle, sti...

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The strange birth of Liberal England

Monday 20 July 2009

One hundred and fifty years ago, on the 6 June 1859, at Willis Rooms in St James, Westminster, Radical, Peelite and Whig Members of Parliament met to formalise their Parliamentary coalition to oust t...

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Civil liberties in war and peace

Monday 24 January 2005

Law and order has long been a major issue in British politics.
...

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The Legacy of Gladstone

Monday 20 July 1998

In the centenary year of Gladstones death, this meeting looked at three crucial aspects of the life of the most famous Liberal Prime Minister.
...

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The Legacy of Gladstone

Wednesday 26 June 1996

Colin Matthew joint editor of the Gladstone Diaries; author of the definitive biographies, Gladstone 1809-1874 and Gladstone 1875-1898; Editor, Dictionary of National Biography.
...

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Archives: libraries
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Hull University Archives

The University of Hull's Brynmor Jones Library (BJL) has been collecting political archives and manuscripts ever since the foundation of the university, initially ...
archive url: http://www.hull.ac.uk/arc/
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Manchester Archives and Local Studies

Liberal History Archives at Manchester Archives and Local Studies ...

archive url: http://www.manchester.gov.uk/libraries/arls/
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National Library of Scotland

Sources in the Manuscripts Division of the National Library of Scotland for the study of the Liberals and Liberal Democrats ...

archive url: http://www.nls.uk/
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National Library of Wales

Liberal Party Archives at the National Library of Wales ...

archive url: http://www.llgc.org.uk/
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Archives: individuals
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Temple, Henry John (third Viscount Palmerston)

Palmerston's papers at the Hartley Library, University of Southampton ...

archive url: http://www.southampton.ac.uk/archives/
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PhD theses
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Aspects of Liberal Unionist Party organisation, 1886-1895


Manchester M.A , 1973

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Aspects of Sheffield Liberalism, 1849-86


Sheffield Ph.D. , 1972

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Chartism and liberalism: popular politics in Leicestershire, 1842-74


Manchester Ph.D. , 1991

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Electoral politics in Berwick-upon-Tweed, 1832-85

Supervisor - Mr. Alan J. Heesom

Durham, M.Phil , 2002

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Gladstone and Liberalism: the political development of W.E. Gladstone, 1845-59


Leicester Ph.D. , 1981

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Gladstone and whiggery: a study in Liberal leadership and politics, 1874-86


Cambridge Ph.D. , 1984

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Gladstone, Irish nationalism and the Home Rule question, 1882-93, with particular reference to the Ulster problem


Trinity College Dublin Ph.D. , 1984

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Irish land reform and English Liberal politics, 1865-70


Cambridge Ph.D. , 1970

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John Stuart Mill and freedom of expression

Supervisor - Professor Fred Rosen

London, Ph.D , 2000

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John Stuart Mill and male support for the Victorian women's movement

Supervisor - Professor John W. Burrow

Oxford, D.Phil , 1996

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John Stuart Mill, George Jacob Holyoake and the 'social question': themes of continuity in mid 19th-century radicalism and socialism

Supervisor - Dr. Gareth Stedman Jones

Cambridge, Ph.D , 1996

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Liberal and Labour politics in two Northumberland mining constituencies, 1885-1924


Council for National Academic Awards M.Phil. , 1989

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Liberalism against democracy: a study of the life, thought and work of Robert Lowe, to 1867

Supervisor, Dr Simon J D Green

Leeds University , 2007

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Liberalism and sociology: L.T. Hobhouse and political argument in England, 1880-1914


Cambridge Ph.D. , 1977

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Liberals and the Home Rule issue, November 1885 - July 1886: the leaders and the rank and file, with special reference to certain localities


Cambridge Ph.D. , 1988

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Lord Rosebery and Scottish Nationalism 1868-1896


Edinburgh Ph.D. , 1996

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Millicent Garrett Fawcett, 1867-94: 'an excellent guerrilla partisan'?


York, MA , 1998

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Mr. Gladstone's leadership of the parliamentary Liberal Party, 1868-74


Oxford D.Phil. , 1961

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Popular liberalism in the English counties, 1885-1906

Supervisor - Mr. John M. Prest

Oxford D.Phil. , 1997

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Radicalism and reform in Burnley, 1842-70

Supervisor - Dr. Iorwerth J. Prothero

Manchester, Ph.D , 1997

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Real Liberals and Conservatives in the City of London, 1848-86

Supervisors - Mr. A. William Purdue and Mr. John M. Golby

Open University, Ph.D , 1997

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Scotland and the Liberal Party, 1880-1900, church, Ireland and Empire: a family affair


Glasgow M.Litt. , 1978

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Sir Jerom Murch: case study of a Unitarian liberal and his impact on the Bath community, 1833-95

Supervisor - Dr. David Brooke

Bath, Ph.D , 1996

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Stuart Rendel (1834-1913) and his contribution to the development of a distinctly Welsh political programme within the Liberal Party between 1880 and 1895


Wales M.A. , 1977

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The divisions of Liberalism: Newcastle politics, 1870-1902


Manchester Ph.D. , 1972

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The formation of Liberal Party policy, 1885-92


Wales Ph.D , 1972

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The formation of the Liberal Party, 1857-68


Cambridge Ph.D. , 1962

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The genesis and significance of the 1886 Home Rule split in the Liberal Party


Cambridge Ph.D. , 1964

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The Gladstonian Liberal Party and religion, 1867-75


Cambridge Ph.D. , 1985

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The growth of Liberal organisation in Manchester from the 1860s to 1903


Manchester Ph.D. , 1956

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The intellectual duke: George Douglas Campbell, 8th duke of Argyll, 1823-1900


Edinburgh University , 2006

Citation form:
Ph.D

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The inter-change between political ideas and events in Britain from the Great Reform Act of 1832 to 1870

Supervisor - Dr. I.J. Prothero

Manchester, Ph.D , 1995

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The Irish policies of the second Gladstone government, 1880-85


Oxford D.Phil. , 1975

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The Liberal Party and South Africa, 1868-80


Bradford Ph.D. , 1974

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The Liberal Party and the House of Lords, 1880-1895


Wales M.A. , 1961

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The Liberal Party in Scotland, 1843-1868: electoral politics and party development

Supervisor - Dr John F McCaffery

Glasgow, Ph.D. , 1996

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The Liberal Party in Scotland, 1885-95


London Ph.D. , 1962

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The Liberal Party in W.Yorkshire, 1885-95


Leeds Ph.D., , 1979

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The Liberal Party of Stoke-on-Trent and parliamentary elections, 1862-80: a case study in Liberal- labour relations


Keele M.A. , 1974

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The Liberal Party on Merseyside in the 19th century


Liverpool Ph.D. , 1968

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The Liberal Press and the rise of Labour: a study, with particular reference to Leeds and Bradford, 1850-1895


Leeds Ph.D. , 1974

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The Marquess of Hartington, Chief Secretary for Ireland, 1871-4: a study in policy and politics

Supervisor - Dr. A.J. Warren

York, MA , 1995

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The National Reform Union and the Reform League: a comparative analysis

Supervisor - Dr. David Nicholls

Manchester Metropolitan, Ph.D , 1997

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The New Liberalism and the challenge of Labour in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1885-1914, with special reference to Huddersfield


Council for National Academic Awards Ph.D. , 1985

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The origins and development of the National Liberal Federation to 1886


Oxford B.Litt , 1973

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The political and military career of Major-General J.E.B. Seely, 1868-1947


Southampton M.Phil. , 2001

http://www.history.ac.uk/ihr/Resources/Theses/tc02.html

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The political career of Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford 1870-1949


Newcastle upon Tyne Ph.D. , 1995

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The radicalism of Joseph Chamberlain: his ideas and actions in the context of Birmingham in the 1870s

Supervisor - Dr. Carl S.A. Chinn

Birmingham, M.Phil , 1998

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The religious ideas and attitudes of William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1859)


Oxford D.Phil. , 1977

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The Rev. James Brown Armour and Liberal politics in N. Antrim, 1869-1914


Belfast Ph.D. , 1979

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The role of the Liberal Unionist party in British politics, 1886-95


London, Ph.D. , 1975

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The Scottish Liberal Party, 1868-86


Strathclyde M.Litt. , 1975

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The social and political activity of the Cadbury family: a study in manipulative capitalism

Supervisor - Professor Roy A. Lowe

Wales, Ph.D , 2002

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The social and political development of Keighley, with special reference to the response of the Liberal Party to the rise of Labour, 1885-1914


Council for National Academic Awards Ph.D. , 1991

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The working library of William Ewart Gladstone

Supervisor - Dr. Jon M. Lawrence

Liverpool, Ph.D , 2003

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University Liberals and the challenge of democracy, 1860-86


Edinburgh Ph.D. , 1972

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Welsh Liberalism, 1868-96: a study in political structure and ideology


Oxford D.Phil. , 1984

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Research
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Four nations history of the Irish Home Rule crisis

A four nations history of the Irish Home Rule crisis, attempting to rebalance the existing Anglo-centric focus. Considering Scottish and Welsh reactions and the development of parallel Home Rule movements, along with how the crisis impacted on political parties across the UK. Sources include newspapers, private papers, Hansard.

Naomi Lloyd-Jones

Contact: naomi.n.lloyd-jones@kcl.ac.uk

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Letters of Richard Cobden (1804-65)

Knowledge of the whereabouts of any letters written by Cobden in private hands, autograph collections, and obscure locations in the UK and abroad for a complete edition of his letters.
(For further details of the Cobden Letters Project, please see www.uea.ac.uk/his/research/cobdenproject)

Dr Anthony Howe

Contact: School of History, University of East
Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ; a.c.howe@uea.ac.uk.

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The emergence of the 'public service ethos'

I am interested in analysing how self-interest and patronage was challenged by the advent of impartial inspectorates, public servants and local authorities in provincial Britain in the mid 19th century. Much work has been done on the emergence of a 'liberal culture' in the central civil service in Whitehall, but much work needs to be done on the motives, behaviour and mentalities of the newly reformed guardians of the poor, sanitary inspectors, factory and mines inspectors, education authorities, prison warders and the police.

Ian Cawood

Contact: Newman University Colllege, Birmingham, i.cawood@newman.ac.uk

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