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Time periods: 1886-1895
Liberals became increasingly concerned with bringing peace to Ireland, where sectarian differences and economic problems were intermingled. Gladstones attempt to bring in home rule, however, split the party and ended the long Liberal ascendancy; he finally retired in 1894. Divisions also arose between those who thought government should stick to the traditional Liberal approach of small government and political reform, and those who argued for intervention to help the poorer sections of society.

History (15)
Biographies (12)
Journals (1)
Journal articles (39)
Events (7)
Archives: libraries (6)
PhD theses (54)
Research (2)
Audio sources (1)

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History
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A concise history of the Liberal Party, SDP and Liberal Democrats

The Liberal Democrats are the successors to two important reformist traditions in British politics - those of liberalism and of social democracy, which became separated from each other in the early p...

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Bentham on Utilitarianism

Extract from Principles of the civil code in Theory of Legislation, trans R Hildreth, 8th edn, London, 1894. ...

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Chamberlains Radical Programme

Joseph Chamberlain, the Birmingham manufacturer, took up full time politics in the 1870s. As mayor of Birmingham he built his reputation by successfully importing business methods into local governme...

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Gladstone's Newcastle Speech - The Future Policy of the Liberal Party

Gladstones Newcastle speech of October 2nd, 1891 to the Annual Meeting of the National Liberal Federation. ...

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Gladstonian Liberalism

Few statesmen left a deeper and more permanent mark on British Liberalism than William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898). What secured a unique place for him in the history of Liberalism was not simply the...

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Liberal Unionists

Gladstones decision to pursue a policy of Home Rule for Ireland in 1886 divided the Liberal Party to the core and prompted the departure of the Liberal Unionists, who subsequently formed a separate p...

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Nonconformists

The Nonconformists were members of several Protestant groups outside the Church of England. They included in their ranks the Old Dissenters, denominations that went back to the seventeenth century. T...

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Rainbow Circle

The Rainbow Circle was a dining club which comprised a group of progressive politicians who met between 1894-1920. ...

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The Liberals and Ireland since 1801

Underneath the surface of this [Irish question], and wrapped up in it, are nearly all the controversies of principle which will agitate the political atmosphere of our time. It is a microcosm of the ...

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The Midlothian Campaign

A year after the defeat of his government in 1874, William Ewart Gladstone retired as leader of the Liberal Party. At 65, he deeply desired an interval between parliament and the grave to devote to r...

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The Newcastle Programme

The general election of 1885 was the first fought on the enlarged franchise of the third reform act and the first in which the parties competed for the votes of large numbers of agricultural workers....

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Women's Liberal Federation

The Women's Liberal Federation was formed between 1886 and 1887 under the presidency of Gladstone's daughter, Catherine and by the turn of the century, the organisation had around 60,000 me...

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Edison's recording of Gladstone

The Gladstone recording would originally have been made on a cylinder for the phonograph which Thomas Edison announced to the world in 1877. ...

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Great Liberals

John Stuart Mill chosen as greatest British Liberal ...

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Old heroes for a new leader

As we have done in each of the last two Liberal Democrat leadership elections, in 1999 and 2006, the Liberal Democrat History Group has asked both candidates for the Liberal Democrat leadership to wr...

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Biographies
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Biography of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman


Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry

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Biography of William Ewart Gladstone


Gladstone, William Ewart

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Biography of Sir William Harcourt


Harcourt, Sir William

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Biography of 5th Earl of Rosebery Archibald Philip Primrose Rosebery


Rosebery, Earl Of

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Biography of John Atkinson Hobson


Hobson, John Atkinson

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Biography of Graham Wallas


Wallas, Graham

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Biography of Charles Bradlaugh


Bradlaugh, Charles

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Biography of Joseph Chamberlain


Chamberlain, Joseph

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Biography of 1st Viscount Gladstone Herbert Gladstone


Gladstone, Herbert (Viscount Gladstone)

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Biography of 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon Edward Grey


Grey, Edward (Viscount Grey)

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Biography of William Ewart Gladstone


Gladstone, William Ewart

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Biography of 1st Earl of Kimberley John Wodehouse


Kimberley, Lord (John Wodehouse)

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Journal
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Journal of Liberal Democrat History 20 - Special issue: William Ewart Gladstone 1809-98

20-Autumn_1998.jpg

Autumn, 1998

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Journal articles
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Gladstonian Liberalism according to Gladstone

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 52 ')


What were the prevailing principles of the Liberal Party in the late Victorian period?

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William Digby and the Indian Question

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 58 ')


The first secretary of the National Liberal Club was also a radical political organiser and agitator for India. Examination of his activities.

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David and Maggie

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 63 ')


Diaries and correspondence files are used to examine the courtship between David Lloyd George and Margaret Owen between 1884 and their marriage in 1888.

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The making of 'The People's William'

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 75 ')


Analysis of Gladstone's transformation into the most popular politician of his age.

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The 1988 leadership campaign

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal Democrat History 24 ')


Following this year's leadership election for the Liberal Democrats, Harriet Smith looks back to the party's first such election.

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The Peacemaker

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 9 ')


How many people know that the first British recipient of a Nobel Peace Prize was a Liberal MP? This article charts the political career of William Randal Cremer (1828-1908).

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Gladstone, Marx and modern progressives

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 8 ')


Examination of the relationship between Karl Marx and William Ewart Gladstone, between revolutionary Marxism and reformist Gladstonian Liberalism.

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The Liberal Party: Triumph and Disintegration 1886-1929

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 1 ')


Review of G. R. Searle, The Liberal Party: Triumph and Disintegration 1886-1929

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The high summer of Victorian Liberalism

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 5 ')


Review of Ian Bradley, The Optimists

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Lloyd George's Flintshire loyalist

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 57 ')


The political achievement of John Herbert Lewis MP (1858-1933).

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The Liberal Party and womens suffrage, 1866-1918

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 62 - Special issue: Women and Liberalism ')


Analysis of the relationship between the Liberal Party and the campaigns for womens suffrage.

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A distinction without a difference?

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 72 - Special issue: The Liberal experience of coalition government ')


An analysis of how the Liberal Unionists maintained a distinctive identity from their Conservative allies, until coalition in 1895.

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Lloyd George, nonconformity and radicalism

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 77 - Special issue: David Lloyd George ')


Lloyd George's career and beliefs from 1890 to 1906.

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The evolution of devolution

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 13 ')


Analysis of the lessons from the first Home Rule Bill of 1886.

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Sir Edward Watkin and the Liberal cause in the nineteenth century

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 55 ')


The life of Liberal MP Edward Watkin, the last of the railway kings.

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Victorian Liberals

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 3 ')


Review of Jonathan Parry, The Rise and Fall of Liberal Government in Victorian Britain

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A fine and disinterested spirit

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 57 ')


The life and activities of Aneurin Williams MP (1859-1924).

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The Reform Club's Jubilee Ball

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 78 ')


The end of an era.

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Liberalism and national identity

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 80 ')


An examination of the role played by Liberalism in the Victorian construction of a national identity.

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The myth of New Liberalism

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 81 ')


Continuity and change in Liberal politics, 1889-1914.

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A 'sincere, thorough and hearty Liberal'?

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 52 ')


Biography of Jabez Balfour, 1843-1916

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Dizzy and the Grand Old Man

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 58 ')


Review of Richard Aldous, The Lion and the Unicorn: Gladstone vs Disraeli

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George Jacob Holyoake

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 67 - Special issue: Liberals and the left ')


Examination of how the life of Holyoake exemplified the development of popular Liberalism.

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A Liberal Life

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal Democrat History 27 ')


Review of Daniel Waley: A Liberal Life: Sydney, Earl Buxton, 1853-1934

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Lord Acton

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal Democrat History 28 ')


Review of Roland Hill: Lord Acton

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Report: Fighting Labour - the struggle for radical supremacy in Scotland 1885-1929

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 65 ')


Report of a Liberal Democrat History Group meeting, 13 March 2009 at the Scottish Liberal Democrat Conference, with Professor Richard Finlay, Dr Catriona Macdonald and Jim Wallace. Chair: Robert Brown MSP.

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The relevance of Henry Richard

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 79 ')


The legacy of Liberal MP Henry Richard (1812-88), the 'apostle of peace'.

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The young Lloyd George and Wales

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 52 ')


Review of Emyr Price: David Lloyd George

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Wales of the future

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 57 ')


Review of Dewi Rowland Hughes, Cymru Fydd

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Comprehensive Liberal history

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 73 ')


Review of Robert Ingham and Duncan Brack (eds.), Peace, Reform and Liberation: A History of Liberal Politics in Britain 16792011.

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Bitterest allies

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 80 ')


Review of Ian Cawood, The Liberal Unionist Party: A History (I.B. Tauris, 2012).

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Splendid Isolation? Britain and the Balance of Power 1874-1914.

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal Democrat History 28 ')


Review of John Charmley: Splendid Isolation? Britain and the Balance of Power 1874-1914.

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'Women's rights and women's duties'

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 53 ')


Review of Ursula Masson, Women's Rights and Women's Duties: The Aberdare Women's Liberal Association, 1891-1910

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British Liberalism and Irish Nationalism

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 59 ')


Review of Eugenio Biagini, British Democracy and Irish Nationalism, 1876-1906.

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Gladstone 200

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 63 ')


The Gladstone 200 Campaign at St Deiniol's Library.

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Review: Land and nation in England

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 65 ')


Review of Paul Readman, Patriotism, National Identity, and the Politics of Land, 1880-1914.

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Gladstone and Ireland

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 78 ')


Review of Mary E. Daly and Theordore Hoppen (eds.), Gladstone: Ireland and
Beyond
(Four Courts Press, 2011).

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Morley and the Liberal Party

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 81 ')


Review of Patrick Jackson, Morley of Blackburn (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2012)

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Secular intellectuals

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 73 ')


Review of William C. Lubenow, Liberal Intellectuals and Public Culture in Modern Britain, 1815-1914: Making Words Flesh.

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Events
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The Liberal Party, Unionism and political culture in late 19th and early 20th century Britain

Saturday 10 November 2012

A one-day seminar organised by Newman University College and the Journal of Liberal History.
...

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Peace, Reform and Liberation: launch of new Liberal history book

Monday 19 September 2011

Peace, Reform and Liberation is a comprehensive history of Liberal politics in Britain.
...

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Riding the tiger - the Liberal experience of coalition governments

Saturday 26 March 2011

A one day seminar organised by the Archives Division of the London School of Economics, the British Liberal Political Studies Group and the Journal of Liberal History.
...

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Fighting Labour: the struggle for radical supremacy in Scotland 1885-1929

Friday 13 March 2009

The Liberal Democrat History Group is holding its first meeting in Scotland as part of the fringe at the Scottish Liberal Democrats' spring conference. The meeting will look back at the Liberal ...

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Civil liberties in war and peace

Monday 24 January 2005

Law and order has long been a major issue in British politics.
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The Legacy of Gladstone

Monday 20 July 1998

In the centenary year of Gladstones death, this meeting looked at three crucial aspects of the life of the most famous Liberal Prime Minister.
...

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The Legacy of Gladstone

Wednesday 26 June 1996

Colin Matthew joint editor of the Gladstone Diaries; author of the definitive biographies, Gladstone 1809-1874 and Gladstone 1875-1898; Editor, Dictionary of National Biography.
...

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Archives: libraries
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Bodleian Library, University of Oxford

Archive Collections relating to Liberal history at the Bodleian Library ...

archive url: http://www.ouls.ox.ac.uk/bodley/library/specialcollections
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Bristol University Library

The Liberal Party collections at the University of Bristol Library originate from the acquisition in 1976 of the Gladstone Library of the National Liberal Club ...

archive url: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/is/
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Hull University Archives

The University of Hull's Brynmor Jones Library (BJL) has been collecting political archives and manuscripts ever since the foundation of the university, initially ...
archive url: http://www.hull.ac.uk/arc/
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Manchester Archives and Local Studies

Liberal History Archives at Manchester Archives and Local Studies ...

archive url: http://www.manchester.gov.uk/libraries/arls/
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National Library of Scotland

Sources in the Manuscripts Division of the National Library of Scotland for the study of the Liberals and Liberal Democrats ...

archive url: http://www.nls.uk/
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National Library of Wales

Liberal Party Archives at the National Library of Wales ...

archive url: http://www.llgc.org.uk/
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PhD theses
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Arthur Markham (1866-1916): coal owner and Liberal M.P. for Mansfield, 1900-16


Leicester M.Phil. , 1991

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Aspects of Liberal Unionist Party organisation, 1886-1895


Manchester M.A , 1973

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British Liberal leaders and the United States, 1874-98


Oxford D. Phil. , 1982

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British policy and diplomacy in the Near East during the Liberal administrations August 1892 to June 1895


Oxford D.Phil. , 1960

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Conservatism and Liberal Unionism in Glasgow, 1874-1912


Dundee Ph.D. , 1983

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English Liberal thought: problems of social reform, 1886-1914


Oxford D.Phil. , 1972

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Factors and variations in Liberal and radical opinion on foreign policy, 1885-99


Oxford D.Phil. , 1950

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For women, for Wales and for Liberalism: women in Liberal politics in Wales c.1883-1914


University of the West of England , 2007

Citation form:
PhD

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Gladstone and whiggery: a study in Liberal leadership and politics, 1874-86


Cambridge Ph.D. , 1984

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Gladstone's Fourth Ministry, 1892-94: policies and personalities


Cambridge Ph.D. , 1975

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Gladstone, Irish nationalism and the Home Rule question, 1882-93, with particular reference to the Ulster problem


Trinity College Dublin Ph.D. , 1984

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Inventing economic imperialism: British Liberals change their minds about capitalism and war

Supervisor - Professor Michael S. Freeden

Oxford, D.Phil , 2005

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Joseph Chamberlain and the Unauthorized Programme


Oxford D.Phil. , 1970

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Liberal and Labour politics in two Northumberland mining constituencies, 1885-1924


Council for National Academic Awards M.Phil. , 1989

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Liberal Party organization and politics in Birmingham, Coventry and Wolverhampton, 1886-1914, with particular reference to the devopment of independent labour representation


Birmingham Ph.D. , 1978

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Liberalism and sociology: L.T. Hobhouse and political argument in England, 1880-1914


Cambridge Ph.D. , 1977

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Liberals and the Home Rule issue, November 1885 - July 1886: the leaders and the rank and file, with special reference to certain localities


Cambridge Ph.D. , 1988

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Lloyd George and Irish Home Rule, 1886-1914


Bristol M.Litt. , 1976

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Lloyd George's pre-Parliamentary political career


Wales M.A. , 1974

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Lord Rosebery and Scottish Nationalism 1868-1896


Edinburgh Ph.D. , 1996

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Millicent Garrett Fawcett, 1867-94: 'an excellent guerrilla partisan'?


York, MA , 1998

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Popular liberalism in the English counties, 1885-1906

Supervisor - Mr. John M. Prest

Oxford D.Phil. , 1997

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Scotland and the Liberal Party, 1880-1900, church, Ireland and Empire: a family affair


Glasgow M.Litt. , 1978

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Sir Jerom Murch: case study of a Unitarian liberal and his impact on the Bath community, 1833-95

Supervisor - Dr. David Brooke

Bath, Ph.D , 1996

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Stuart Rendel (1834-1913) and his contribution to the development of a distinctly Welsh political programme within the Liberal Party between 1880 and 1895


Wales M.A. , 1977

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The development of the Liberal Party in England, with special reference to the north-west, 1886- 1900


Oxford D.Phil. , 1971

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The divisions of Liberalism: Newcastle politics, 1870-1902


Manchester Ph.D. , 1972

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The education question and Liberal politics in N.E. England, 1868-1910


Newcastle M.Litt , 1985

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The formation of Liberal Party policy, 1885-92


Wales Ph.D , 1972

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The genesis and significance of the 1886 Home Rule split in the Liberal Party


Cambridge Ph.D. , 1964

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The growth of Liberal organisation in Manchester from the 1860s to 1903


Manchester Ph.D. , 1956

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The intellectual duke: George Douglas Campbell, 8th duke of Argyll, 1823-1900


Edinburgh University , 2006

Citation form:
Ph.D

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The Liberal Party and foreign affairs, 1895-1905


London M.Phil. , 1969

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The Liberal Party and South Africa, 1895-1902


Oxford D.Phil. , 1963

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The Liberal Party and the House of Lords, 1880-1895


Wales M.A. , 1961

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The Liberal Party in Scotland, 1885-95


London Ph.D. , 1962

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The Liberal Party in W.Yorkshire, 1885-95


Leeds Ph.D., , 1979

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The Liberal Party on Merseyside in the 19th century


Liverpool Ph.D. , 1968

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The Liberal Press and the rise of Labour: a study, with particular reference to Leeds and Bradford, 1850-1895


Leeds Ph.D. , 1974

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The Liberal Unionist Party until December 1887


Edinburgh Ph.D. , 1955

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The New Liberalism and the challenge of Labour in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1885-1914, with special reference to Huddersfield


Council for National Academic Awards Ph.D. , 1985

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The Paradise Lost of liberalism: individualist political thought in late Victorian Britain


Oxford D.Phil. , 1989

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The political and military career of Major-General J.E.B. Seely, 1868-1947


Southampton M.Phil. , 2001

http://www.history.ac.uk/ihr/Resources/Theses/tc02.html

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The political career of Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford 1870-1949


Newcastle upon Tyne Ph.D. , 1995

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The radical thread - political change in Scotland: Paisley politics, 1885-1924.

Supervisor - Professor W. Hamish Fraser

Strathclyde, Ph.D , 1995

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The Rev. James Brown Armour and Liberal politics in N. Antrim, 1869-1914


Belfast Ph.D. , 1979

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The role of the Liberal Unionist party in British politics, 1886-95


London, Ph.D. , 1975

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The Scottish Liberal Party, 1868-86


Strathclyde M.Litt. , 1975

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The social and political activity of the Cadbury family: a study in manipulative capitalism

Supervisor - Professor Roy A. Lowe

Wales, Ph.D , 2002

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The social and political development of Keighley, with special reference to the response of the Liberal Party to the rise of Labour, 1885-1914


Council for National Academic Awards Ph.D. , 1991

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The transformation of urban Liberalism: Liberal politics in Leicester and Manchester, 1885-95

Supervisor - Dr. Peter C. Lowe

Manchester, Ph.D , 1999

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The working library of William Ewart Gladstone

Supervisor - Dr. Jon M. Lawrence

Liverpool, Ph.D , 2003

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W.E. Gladstone: the evolution of the Home Rule policy


Ireland, National University M.A. , 1971

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Welsh Liberalism, 1868-96: a study in political structure and ideology


Oxford D.Phil. , 1984

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Research
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Dadabhai Naoroji

Dadabhai Naoroji (1825-1917) was an Indian nationalist and Liberal member for Central Finsbury, 1892-95 - the first Asian to be elected to the House of Commons. This research for a PhD at Harvard aims to produce both a biography of Naoroji and a volume of his selected correspondence, to be published by OUP India in 2013. The current phase concentrates on Naoroji's links with a range of British progressive organisations and individuals, particularly in his later career. Suggestions for archival sources very welcome.

Dinyar Patel

Contact: dinyar.patel@gmail.com or 07775 753 724

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Four nations history of the Irish Home Rule crisis

A four nations history of the Irish Home Rule crisis, attempting to rebalance the existing Anglo-centric focus. Considering Scottish and Welsh reactions and the development of parallel Home Rule movements, along with how the crisis impacted on political parties across the UK. Sources include newspapers, private papers, Hansard.

Naomi Lloyd-Jones

Contact: naomi.n.lloyd-jones@kcl.ac.uk

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Audio sources
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William Gladstone: rare recording of him speaking

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