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Themes: Liberal thought and thinkers
This page lists all the content on the site relevant to Liberal thought and Liberal thinkers.

History (28)
Biographies (12)
Journals (2)
Journal articles (54)
Books (1)
Events (23)
PhD theses (36)

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History
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Bentham on Utilitarianism

Extract from Principles of the civil code in Theory of Legislation, trans R Hildreth, 8th edn, London, 1894. ...

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Chamberlain on the Radical Programme

First speech on the Unauthorised Programme by Joseph Chamberlain
...

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Chamberlains Radical Programme

Joseph Chamberlain, the Birmingham manufacturer, took up full time politics in the 1870s. As mayor of Birmingham he built his reputation by successfully importing business methods into local governme...

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Fox on the French Revolution

Extract from Fox's amendments to the address on the King's speech at the opening of the session (1792). ...

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Gladstone's Newcastle Speech - The Future Policy of the Liberal Party

Gladstones Newcastle speech of October 2nd, 1891 to the Annual Meeting of the National Liberal Federation. ...

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Gladstonian Liberalism

Few statesmen left a deeper and more permanent mark on British Liberalism than William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898). What secured a unique place for him in the history of Liberalism was not simply the...

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Impact of the French and American Revolutions

The French Revolution had important consequences for every major country in Europe. What was particularly remarkable about the impact of the French Revolution on Britain was its profound and abiding ...

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John Milton on the liberty of unlicensed printing

Extract from Areopagitca; a parliamentary speech by John Milton for the liberty of unlicensed printing (1644) ...

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John Stuart Mill On Liberty

Chapter IV Of the Limits to the Authority of Society over the Individual ...

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Joseph Chamberlain and Municipal Liberalism

The reforms in municipal services that Joseph Chamberlain introduced during his three-year mayoralty of Birmingham in the mid-1870s marked a turning point for British Liberalism as well as in the gov...

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Liberal Governments of 1905-15

The Liberal government which took office as a minority administration in December 1905, before securing an overwhelming popular endorsement at the General Election of January 1906, remained in power ...

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Liberal Unionists

Gladstones decision to pursue a policy of Home Rule for Ireland in 1886 divided the Liberal Party to the core and prompted the departure of the Liberal Unionists, who subsequently formed a separate p...

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Macaulay on the lessons of the English Revolution

The History of England from the Accession of James the Second (5 vol., 1849 61) ...

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Macaulay on the role of the Whigs

Extract from a review of Henry Hallam's The constitutional history of England in the Edinburgh Review, vol. 48, September 1828. ...

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Personal account of the meeting in Willis Rooms

The following letter from Sidney Herbert to his wife is a personal account of the meeting that took place at Willis' Rooms in St James Street, London on the 6th June 1859, when the Liberal Party...

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Popular Radicalism

'Popular radicalism' embraced a range of causes and beliefs in nineteenth-century Britain. For most readers, it relates to agitation outside parliament to secure a democratic franchise on t...

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Rainbow Circle

The Rainbow Circle was a dining club which comprised a group of progressive politicians who met between 1894-1920. ...

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Times report on the meeting in Willis Rooms

The following report from The Times describes the meeting that took place at Willis' Rooms in St James Street, London on the 6th June 1859, when the Liberal Party was finally formed. ...

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Cobden on the repeal of the Corn Laws

Richard Cobden (1804-65) spearheaded the crusade for free trade, which remained a central plank of Liberalism across the ages. ...

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John Stuart Mill on votes for women

'We ought not to deny to them, what we are conceding to everybody else' - House of Commons, 20 May 1867 ...

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The New Liberalism

The disaster of the 1895 election, when the Liberals lost almost a hundred seats, struck a mortal blow at Rosebery's leadership and pointed to the urgent need for a new direction. Although for s...

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Community politics

Community Politics describes a particular style of locally organised campaigning on specifically local issues pioneered by the Liberal Party in the 1950s and 1960s and now practised by Liberal Democr...

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Greaves and Lishman: 'The Theory and Practice of Community Politics'

The classic exposition of the Liberal approach to community politics; by Bernard Greaves and Gordon Lishman. ...

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'Dead Parrot' document

The 'Dead Parrot' became the nickname of the policy document due to be issued, alongside the new party's constitution, at the successful culmination of merger negotiations between the ...

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Preamble to Liberal Democrat constitution

The Liberal Democrats exist to build and safeguard a fair, free and open society, in which we seek to balance the fundamental values of liberty, equality and community, and in which no-one shall be e...

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Paddy Ashdown: The Chard Speech

Paddy Ashdown on realignment; the Guildhall, Chard, Somerset, 9 May 1992 ...

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Great Liberals

John Stuart Mill chosen as greatest British Liberal ...

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Old heroes for a new leader

As we have done in each of the last two Liberal Democrat leadership elections, in 1999 and 2006, the Liberal Democrat History Group has asked both candidates for the Liberal Democrat leadership to wr...

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Biographies
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Biography of Jeremy Bentham


Bentham, Jeremy

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Biography of MP; 1st Baron Beveridge William Beveridge


Beveridge, William (Lord Beveridge)

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Biography of John Atkinson Hobson


Hobson, John Atkinson

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Biography of MP Joseph Hume


Hume, Joseph

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Biography of 1st Baron Keynes John Maynard Keynes


Maynard Keynes, John (Lord Keynes)

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Biography of MP Michael Meadowcroft


Meadowcroft, Michael

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Biography of John Stuart Mill


Mill, John Stuart

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Biography of Thomas Paine


Paine, Thomas

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Biography of David Ricardo


Ricardo, David

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Biography of Adam Smith


Smith, Adam

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Biography of Graham Wallas


Wallas, Graham

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Biography of MP Charles Bradlaugh


Bradlaugh, Charles

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Journal
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Journal of Liberal History 47 - Special issue: Liberals of the Right?

1_47-Summer_2005.jpg

Summer, 2005

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Journal of Liberal Democrat History 20 - Special issue: William Ewart Gladstone 1809-98

20-Autumn_1998.jpg

Autumn, 1998

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Journal articles
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What influences Liberal Democrats?

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 8 ')


John Stuart Mill, Jo Grimond, green economists and the Suez crisis, according to this Liberal Democrat History Group survey of formative influences on leading Liberal Democrat politicians.
Duncan Brack

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Report: 'We can conquer unemployment'

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 5 ')


Report of LDHG meeting of September 1994, on the Liberal approach to unemployment in the 1920s and '30s, with Lord Skidelsky

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Report: The origins of community politics

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 4 ')


Report of LDHG meeting of June 1994 - a witness seminar on the origins of community politics, with Gordon Lishman

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In search of the great Liberals

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 55 ')


Who is the greatest Liberal of all time? Your chance to decide.

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Liberals and left

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 67 - Special issue: Liberals and the left ')


Introduction to this special issue of the Journal.

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Gladstonian Liberalism according to Gladstone

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 52 ')


What were the prevailing principles of the Liberal Party in the late Victorian period?

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Liberalism and Liberty from Gladstone to Ashdown: Continuous Thread or Winding Stair?

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal Democrat History 20 - Special issue: William Ewart Gladstone 1809-98 ')


In a lecture delivered at Hawarden, and in a shortened version to the LDHG meeting in July 1998, Conrad Russell outlines the perennial themes in the approach of Liberals and Liberal Democrats.

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The SDP's ideological legacy

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal Democrat History 18 - Special issue: The Legacy of the Alliance and Merger ')


What was the ideological inheritance of the Social Democratic Party? And what did it bequeath to the Liberal Democrats?

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Remembering Beveridge

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 14 - Special issue: The Liberal revival ')


Memories of William Beveridge, social scientist and Liberal, whose ideas shaped British postwar politics.

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Learning the lessons of history: John Stuart Mill and politics today

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 57 ')


What would John Stuart Mill make of todays politicians?

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John Stuart Mill: Liberal father of feminism

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 62 - Special issue: Women and Liberalism ')


Exploration of how Liberalism and feminism meet powerfully in the life and work of John Stuart Mill.

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John Stuart Mill's 'On Liberty' 150 years later

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 64 ')


An analysis of the most well-known work of the greatest of the Victorian Liberal philosophers, published 150 years ago this year, and an assessment of its relevance to 2009.

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Out of Chartism, into Liberalism?

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 67 - Special issue: Liberals and the left ')


Popular radicals and the Liberal Party in mid-Victorian Britain.

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John Stuart Mill and the Liberal Party

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 70 ')


Analysis of the impact of the Victorian Liberal philosopher on his party.

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L. T. Hobhouse and J. A. Hobson: New Liberal influence on Third Way ideas

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 55 ')


What did Tony Blair draw from the New Liberalism of the Hobhouse and Hobson?

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The high summer of Victorian Liberalism

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 5 ')


Review of Ian Bradley, The Optimists

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A 'prophet for the left'? Gladstone's legacy 1809-2009

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 64 ')


In the year of the 200th anniversary of his birth, what relevance has Gladstone to today's politics?

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The Liberal Party and the New Liberalism

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 67 - Special issue: Liberals and the left ')


Examination of the relationship between the New Liberalism and the Liberal Party in the period around the Liberal victory of 1906.

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John Stuart Mill as politician

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 70 ')


Mill's brief career as a Member of Parliament.

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C. E. Montague, Liberal war writers and the Great War

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 78 ')


The war writings of a Liberal author.

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The development of th New Liberalism as a philosophy of transition

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 54 - Special issue: The 1906 landslide: the legacy ')


The philosophy that underpinned the Liberal Party's revival in the 1906 election

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Report: What's left of Gladstonian Liberalism in the Liberal Democrats?

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 66 ')


Report of History Group meeting of 25 January 2010, with Dr Eugenio Biagini and Chris Huhne MP. Chair: William Wallace (Hon. President, Liberal Democrat History Group).

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Thomas Paine

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 67 - Special issue: Liberals and the left ')


What was the impact of Thomas Paine on Liberalism and liberal thought?

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An archivist's nightmare: the papers of John Stuart Mill

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 70 ')


The Mill-Taylor Collection at the LSE.

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Mill on limited liability partnerships

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal Democrat History 23 ')


Not only a notable philosopher, John Stuart Mill was also active on many political issues of the day. Robert Ingham looks at one, topical once again.

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Liberal Democracy, philosophy and political identity

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 13 ')


A historical and philosophical study of Liberalism in relation to democracy to be brought together.

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Reformulating Liberalism

(from journal ' Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter 6 ')


Review of L. T. Hobhouse, Liberalism and Other Writings, edited by James Meadowcroft

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T. H. Green: Forgotten Liberal?

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 59 ')


Arguments for T. H. Green as the greatest British Liberal.

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Yellow Book versus Orange Book: Is it time for a new New Liberalism?

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 55 ')


Report of meeting of 20 September 2006, with Paul Marshall and Ed Randall

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George Jacob Holyoake

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 67 - Special issue: Liberals and the left ')


Examination of how the life of Holyoake exemplified the development of popular Liberalism.

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'Reluctant' or Liberal collectivists?

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 78 ')


The social liberalism of Keynes and Beveridge.

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Think Liberal: The 'Dictionary of Liberal Thought'

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 56 ')


Report of History Group meeting, March 2007 (Harrogate), with David Howarth MP and Michael Meadowcroft.

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Strange survival

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 63 ')


Review of Green and Tanner (eds.), The Strange Survival of Liberal England.

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Ownership for all

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 76 ')


Report of a Liberal Democrat History Group meeting at the National Liberal Club, 9 July 2012, on the Liberal Party, co-ownership and industrial relations.

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Man of contradictions

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 58 ')


Review of Arthur H. Cash, John Wilkes, The Scandalous Father of Civil Liberty

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Greatest of the Liberal philosophers

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 60 ')


Review of Richard Reeves, John Stuart Mill, Victorian Firebrand.

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Radical Reform Group

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 67 - Special issue: Liberals and the left ')


Examination of the group's formation, history and publications.

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Report: Class of '81: who are the true heirs to the SDP?

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 71 ')


Report of Centre Forum meeting of March 2011, with Andrew Adonis, Chris Huhne MP and Greg Clark MP.

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Realignment of the Left?

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal Democrat History 27 ')


Review of Peter Joyce: Realignment of the Left? A history of the relationship between the Liberal Democrat and Labour parties

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John Maynard Keynes: Fighting for Britain 1937-46

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal Democrat History 30 ')


Review of Robert Skidelsky: John Maynard Keynes: Fighting for Britain 1937-46.

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The relevance of Henry Richard

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 79 ')


The legacy of Liberal MP Henry Richard (1812-88), the 'apostle of peace'.

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Think Liberal

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 56 ')


Review of Duncan Brack and Ed Randall (eds.), Dictionary of Liberal Thought

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Social Liberalism

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 60 ')


Review of Duncan Brack, Richard Grayson and David Howarth (eds), Reinventing the State: Social Liberalism for the 21st Century.

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Thomas Paine and the Radical Liberal Tradition

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 68 ')


Report of meeting of 12 July 2010; with Professor Edward Royle and Dr Edward Vallance. Chair: Dr Richard Grayson.

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Keynes' world-view

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 75 ')


Review of Gilles Dostaler, Keynes and His Battles

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An Intelligent Person's Guide to Liberalism

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal Democrat History 27 ')


Review of Conrad Russell: An Intelligent Person's Guide to Liberalism.

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The Orange Book revisited

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 79 ')


Review of 'Eight Years Since The Orange Book: Have the Liberal Democrats "reclaimed" Liberalism?' (Economic Affairs 32:2, June 2012).

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Theoretician of modernity

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 55 ')


Review of Norman Kemp-Smith, The Philosophy of David Hume: A Central Study of its Origins and Central Doctrines, with a new introduction by Don Garrett

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Burke reflected

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 61 ')


Review of Peter J. Stanlis (ed.), Edmund Burke: Selected Writings and Speeches

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Personalities and causes of the left

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 73 ')


Review of K. O. Morgan, Ages of Reform: Dawns and Downfalls of the British Left.

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Of Liberals and Liberalism

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 81 ')


Review of Duncan Brack (ed.), The Dictionary of Liberal Quotations (Biteback Publishing, 2013)

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Politics as self-sacrifice

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 61 ')


Review of Mark Francis, Herbert Spencer and the Invention of Modern Life

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Liberal thought

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 69 ')


Review of Kevin Hickson (ed.), The Political Thought of the Liberals and Liberal Democrats since 1945.

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Secular intellectuals

(from journal ' Journal of Liberal History 73 ')


Review of William C. Lubenow, Liberal Intellectuals and Public Culture in Modern Britain, 1815-1914: Making Words Flesh.

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Books
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Dictionary of Liberal Thought

'If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.' Locke, Bentham, Mill, Hobhouse, Keynes, Rawls ... Liberalism has been built on more than three centuries work of political thinkers and writers, and the aspirations of countless human beings who have fought for freedom, democracy, the rule of law and open and tolerant societies. Now, in the first-ever such publication, the History Groups Dictionary of Liberal Thought provides an accessible guide to the key thinkers, groups and concepts associated with liberalism not only British but also European and American. The essential reference book for every thinking Liberal. Full price £35; available to Journal of Liberal History subscribers at the special price of £28. See top of page for order details.

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Events
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Great Liberal thinkers: lessons for the future

Sunday 5 October 2014

To mark the launch of our publication, 'Liberal Thinkers', Baroness Liz Barker and MPs Alan Beith, David Laws and John Pugh draw lessons from past Liberal thinkers for the future direction...

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Forgotten heroes for a governing party

Monday 20 June 2011

Some forgotten figures of Liberal history may deserve their obscurity, but most remain an unmined source of reference, quotation and inspiration for the contemporary Liberal Democrat - especially now...

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Red Guard versus Old Guard? The influence of the Young Liberal movement on the Liberal Party in the 1960s and 1970s a witness seminar

Friday 12 March 2010

In the 1960s and early 1970s the press coined the phrase the "Red Guard" to describe the radical politics of the youth wing of the Liberal Party. At the 1966 Party Conference in Brighton, t...

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What's left of Gladstonian Liberalism in the Liberal Democrats?

Monday 25 January 2010

Since the publication of The Orange Book: Reclaiming Liberalism edited by David Laws and Paul Marshall in 2004, there has been an ongoing discussion in the Liberal Democrats about whether the party n...

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A celebration and exploration of aspects of the life, career and thought of John Stuart Mill

Saturday 14 November 2009

In 1859, the philosopher and leading liberal theorist of Victorian Britain, John Stuart Mill, published his most important and enduring work On Liberty. In this essay Mill set out the principle, sti...

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Think Liberal: The Dictionary of Liberal Thought

Friday 2 March 2007

'If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.' Locke, Bentham, Mill, Hobhouse, Keynes, Rawls ... Liberalism has been built on more than three centuries work of poli...

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Liberalism and British national identity

Monday 5 February 2007

When people are asked what makes up Britishness, they often give the notions of 'fair play' 'tolerance' or 'personal liberty' as part of the answer. Liberals regard the...

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Yellow Book versus Orange Book: Is it time for a new New Liberalism?

Wednesday 20 September 2006

A hundred years ago, the Liberal landslide victory in the 1906 election opened the way for a period of radical social reform based on the social-liberal ideology of the New Liberalism.
...

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Joseph Chamberlain and the unauthorised programme

Monday 25 July 2005

This meeting looked at Joseph Chamberlain and the unauthorised programme, and how this led to the loss of the Whigs from the Liberal Party and paved the way for the New Liberalism of the 1905 governm...

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Civil liberties in war and peace

Monday 24 January 2005

Law and order has long been a major issue in British politics.
...

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Winston Churchill: A Liberal Politician

Monday 9 February 2004

It is often forgotten that Winston Churchill served in four different governments as a Liberal minister, between 1905 and 1922. Indeed, the year 2004 was the centenary of his joining the Liberal Part...

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Clement Davies Liberal Party Saviour?

Sunday 21 September 2003

Clement Davies led the Liberal Party from 1945 to 1956. During that time, the party came very close to dying out but it survived. He turned down Churchills offer of a government position and in so d...

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The Legacy of Jo Grimond - Remembering Jo

Sunday 22 September 2002

There were many at the Brighton Conference who were in no doubt that if it wasnt for a young, charismatic party leader they would have no party at all.
...

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Old Liberals, New Liberals and Social Democrats

Monday 1 July 2002

At their Autumn Conference, the Liberal Democrats debated their core values and principles in detail for only the second time since the party was formed in 1988.
...

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Speeches and Speech-makers

Tuesday 25 September 2001

The official launch of the Liberal Democrat History Groups new book, Great Liberal Speeches, published by Politicos Publishing. ...

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Liberalism and Nationalism: Allies or Enemies?

Friday 5 March 1999

Liberals and Nationalists have sometimes shared common aims. But how close are they?
...

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No More Heroes Any More?

Sunday 20 September 1998

What have Liberal Democrats today to learn from Liberal heroes of the past? Who contributed most to the development of the party and of Liberalism? What common themes bind them together?
...

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The Legacy of Gladstone

Monday 20 July 1998

In the centenary year of Gladstones death, this meeting looked at three crucial aspects of the life of the most famous Liberal Prime Minister.
...

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The Legacy of Gladstone

Wednesday 26 June 1996

Colin Matthew joint editor of the Gladstone Diaries; author of the definitive biographies, Gladstone 1809-1874 and Gladstone 1875-1898; Editor, Dictionary of National Biography.
...

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Does New Labour leave room for New Liberals?

Sunday 17 September 1995

The reforming Liberal Governments of 1906-14 helped lay the foundations of the British welfare state; amongst other achievements, they introduced old age pensions, national insurance and the principl...

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Old Heroes for a New Party

Friday 10 March 1995

Each talked about a philosopher, writer or politician of the past who still had something of relevance to contribute to the Partys principles and policies. The aim was to connect the political belief...

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Old Heroes for a New Party

Friday 11 March 1994

Which of the great philosophers and thinkers of the past had most to offer the Liberal Democrats? Whose influences could be discerned in Party principles and policies?
...

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Survival in the Balance: The Liberal Party after 1945

Monday 17 September 1990

Dr Stevenson examined the history of the Liberal Party after 1945, and its attempt to carve out an identity for itself in a hostile political world. He explored the historical dimension of the contin...

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PhD theses
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An ideology of transition: the political thought of the Social Democratic Party


Durham M.A. , 1990

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Asquith, Home Rule and the Gladstonian tradition


Queens University Belfast Ph.D. , 1973

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Edmund Burke and the constitutional crisis, 1778-84

Supervisor - Dr. Leslie G. Mitchell

Oxford, D.Phil , 2001

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English Liberal thought: problems of social reform, 1886-1914


Oxford D.Phil. , 1972

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Ideas of the Liberal Party: perception, agendas, and liberal politics in the House of Commons, 1832-1852

Suprevisors - Dr. John Stevenson and Professor David S. Eastwood

Oxford D.Phil , 1998

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John Morley: a political study, with special emphasis on the relationship between his political thought and practice


Oxford D.Phil. , 1965

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John Stuart Mill and freedom of expression

Supervisor - Professor Fred Rosen

London, Ph.D , 2000

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John Stuart Mill, George Jacob Holyoake and the 'social question': themes of continuity in mid 19th-century radicalism and socialism

Supervisor - Dr. Gareth Stedman Jones

Cambridge, Ph.D , 1996

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Joseph Chamberlain and the Unauthorized Programme


Oxford D.Phil. , 1970

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Joseph Cowan of Newcastle and radical Liberalism


Northumbria at Newcastle Ph.D. , 1993

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Liberalism against democracy: a study of the life, thought and work of Robert Lowe, to 1867

Supervisor, Dr Simon J D Green

Leeds University , 2007

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Lloyd George and Welsh liberalism: collected essays


Aberystwyth Ph.D. , 2001

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Radical Liberals and Liberal politics, 1906-c.1924


Kent Ph.D. , 1980

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Richard Cobden and the intellectual development and influence of the Manchester School of Economics


Manchester Ph.D. , 1976

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Some aspects of the history of the Liberal Party in Britain between 1906-1914


Oxford D.Phil. , 1962

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Stuart Rendel (1834-1913) and his contribution to the development of a distinctly Welsh political programme within the Liberal Party between 1880 and 1895


Wales M.A. , 1977

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The 'politick personality': Edmund Burke's political ideas and the Lockean inheritance

Supervisor - Professor Fred Rosen

London, Ph.D , 2005

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The character of the British Liberal Party, 1908-18: a study of its character and disintegration


Cambridge Ph.D.

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The constitutional thought of Winston Churchill, 1906-29

Supervisor - Dr. David J. Reynolds

Cambridge, M.Litt , 1996

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The intellectual duke: George Douglas Campbell, 8th duke of Argyll, 1823-1900


Edinburgh University , 2006

Citation form:
Ph.D

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The inter-change between political ideas and events in Britain from the Great Reform Act of 1832 to 1870

Supervisor - Dr. I.J. Prothero

Manchester, Ph.D , 1995

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The Liberal mind, 1914-1929


Cambridge Ph.D. , 1975

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The Liberal Party 1970 - 1983: its philosophy and political strategy


Leeds Ph.D. , 1999

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The Liberal Unionist Party until December 1887


Edinburgh Ph.D. , 1955

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The making of Liberal Party policy, 1945-80


Reading Ph.D. , 1983

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The National Reform Union and the Reform League: a comparative analysis

Supervisor - Dr. David Nicholls

Manchester Metropolitan, Ph.D , 1997

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The New Liberalism and the challenge of Labour in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1885-1914, with special reference to Huddersfield


Council for National Academic Awards Ph.D. , 1985

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The Paradise Lost of liberalism: individualist political thought in late Victorian Britain


Oxford D.Phil. , 1989

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The personal religious life and development of William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1832)


Leeds Ph.D. , 1987

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The political thought of David George Ritchie: elements of a late Victorian Liberal creed


Oxford M.Phil. , 1989

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The radicalism of Joseph Chamberlain: his ideas and actions in the context of Birmingham in the 1870s

Supervisor - Dr. Carl S.A. Chinn

Birmingham, M.Phil , 1998

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The religious ideas and attitudes of William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1859)


Oxford D.Phil. , 1977

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The strange death of British Liberalism: the Liberal summer schools' movement and the making of the Yellow Book in the 1920s

Supervisor - Professor Ben J. Pimlott

London, Ph.D , 2001

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The Wail of Jeremiah: the early career of C.F.G. Masterman as an expression of Edwardian Christian Socialism


London, Kings College Ph.D. , 1994

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The writings and political activities of Slingsby Bethel, 1617-97

Supervisor - Dr. Jonathan H. Scott

Cambridge, M.Litt , 2000

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Welsh Liberalism, 1868-96: a study in political structure and ideology


Oxford D.Phil. , 1984

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